11.1 Does ideology match the idea?
11.2 Computers are easy and fun.
11.3 Not hiding my sentiments.
11.4 Scenes in real life. Atmosphere of suspicion, hurt and ill is a curious gap between people, willingly kept alive to make people struggle and fall down.
Concept of ideology is to bring death to unreason and randomness: there are clear rights and wrongs, stupidity and intellect, constant human error and imperfectness, impulsiveness, unexplainable feeling-based things, things to clarify and correct, deny and hide, bad and good, divisions and gaps, unity which must be emotional and rational at the same time, bonds to what we think are good, who we think agree with us and are like us, like us. What is the unreasonable/unreason/irrational still seems to be the very ordinary and commonplace thing. So is ideological battle against the natural as we seek to live modernly specifically structured exactly defined lives and the unnatural is somehow the ideal even though we like to adore nature, because it represents purity, the beginning of us and beauty? The unnatural is something outside our experience but we aspire it, natural is scary, ugly, cold and difficult to master. The knowing and expectation of what the natural is and can do for us, the good for us there, the perfection of nature in our possession is that it is in our control and out of our control, an entity of its own. Admiration of having accomplished something flawless like a well-tended garden is the human touch, an achievement of knowing what plants do, how they grow and flourish. We mastering the natural is the modern desire, a very basic human desire and need, basic survival skill and is what the postmodern should be about, a theory made reality, going forward but not forgetting what has been, something we can understand and again control? The knowing of the natural order as we tend to bind natural to the good and right, is the basis, which we think we know, and paradoxes are inescapable. We divide things into natural and unnatural, good and bad, from which and to which we randomly shuffle, grab from, which both are our material as we are material. There are laws there that we think we know and understand, that cannot be broken according to many like homosexuality is unnatural, women are naturally something as a group. Individually or collectively learned things and decided are the good things and what is bad, or is it about not understanding what natural really is and how nature functions in us, via us, motivates us and results in our lives.
Ideology is to help us move away from the natural state, this is what we have been doing progressively, but still we admire and cherish the natural as something pure and true, valuable, something to be but use abusively. What is the rational part?
It can be very strange to live by ideology knowingly aware: all what is can be against you, what you are is wrong. The needs therein that are true must be are painted black and think as corrupted, as dirty, things you can do are not valuable, an immature selection of us against those others types is stigmatizing and reminds of natural selection in conscious use. Then one must continue thinking what is the reason there in use other than competition and only value is what money and wealth create. Continuing with what is a good person, what is the human in this picture and the animal we like to think as bad, what is a good society, what is the ideology we choose to live by and why is an unreasonable act something we do not understand or value such as work of an artist? The unknown is to be mocked and killed, because it disturbs the balance of strictly framed reality, offends our understanding of the good, what is good life, how to live a life, what is a good person and the rights in a modern frame. Challenging our understanding and maybe challenging us to change drastically, which is an effort and a scare is what ideology pursues like religion, philosophy, like any guide in life but are the challenges correct? What is the reasonable in our thinking are the norms by which we are expected to live and making right choices which must be constantly figured out and based, the very basics of what we are all about are to go through over and over again, so we must challenge ourselves constantly to evolve. Question is how to challenge the norms. In all righteousness thinking one is an absolute equalizer and a teacher as we have seen in social media, everybody is right in their reasoning, routes to take obediently are very often absolute, which obedience happens so easily it puzzles me why.
What are the unreasonable things and why are they unreasonable? There is hurt and loss involved. Scare of not surviving is constant, not being accepted, being an outsider. Have we chosen reason/ideology or has it chosen us and at what point in our lives do we make realisations upon ideology we were born into? How we reason still doesn’t make reasoning right, to our reasoning influence many things that aren’t rational and right, so we choose, point a finger, group etc. to belong in the name of ideology, in fear, in not knowing, in assumption and thinking we know what is the reason/reasonable/good and right. I claim we can be very irrational in our reasoning, thinking we are rational and use our intellect, which is the individual intellect as we like to think we have. Thinking outside the box and speak against can be dangerous in this environment. When one instantly becomes an enemy for confronting and questioning the reason/unreason in use, reasoning of others, task of thinking belongs to all, what is this ideology must be taken on the table for all to see and think how progressive are we eventually. One good example is the concept of natural, what is natural, why we think our way of life is natural, what are the things we think are unnatural and therefore against us and our way of life, morals, values, against the good.
Do we succeed in being objective (which clearly is not the case) what comes to the ideology we believe in and ideologies, values, morals of others? To tolerate is an interesting issue here: what is to tolerate, what must be tolerated etc. It is a vanity and a scare issue how well are we able and willing to look upon and ponder, firstly points of views of our own and then of the others: what are the motives there to think and know, what and whom are we against. To think being absolutely right is a problem and admitting being wrong is incredibly hard. As we should be true to ideology is a demand, who is demanding? Can we hold on to purity of ideological thought and what happens to those who lack faith, put up a fight, question, argue, bring up evidence against your case of absolute truth? Clearly there are many difficulties what comes to knowing. Sticking to a belief like a promise, an illusion, is not knowing enough, can be in the way of learning of the facts. What to do about the facts is deciding what do we ignore and what do we accept as truths. Feelings possibly do not register as the most valuable signifier of what is the absolute truth if there is any. Understanding what the other is all about is as difficult and what are you yourself all about: how to figure that out? We tend to misunderstand, misinterpret, misjudge as we like generalisations, assumptions, appearances, feelings, thinking-you-know-attitude is more popular than actually knowing what is and this all functions along with ideology. When judgment is placed upon the other ideology/reasoning, how much is it about feelings and images/assumptions? To make an ideological system is to look for rational ways to construct a world view, life, values, system to function. May there be logical and sincere missions truly or only in one’s imagination. To have as rational goals as possible as we all reason, why we choose what we do and means to live by takes political ideological standing, call for justice and you thinking according to this ideology is to choose how, why and what. Thinking, reasoning, making, it all must be as clear and focused as possible for results. What kind of results do we want and for who? Instead of thinking you know, learn the facts and you will not be wrong and be aware what there is to know for you which is a lot.
First there must be a solid theoretical base to construct a belief system, believe and moreover know it is true, it makes sense and then we need true believers/sense makers/followers who think can improve their lives with this belief/knowledge, at least definitely change their lives for better and have the courage to do so. Having new methods and tactics as a mass to build something different is a constant effort mankind does and the efforts either fail or succeed which is the interesting part: where do we go wrong? A useful idea becoming ideology means progress. Do idea and ideology match? They should.
1796, “science of ideas,” originally “philosophy of the mind which derives knowledge from the senses” (as opposed to metaphysics), from French idéologie “study or science of ideas,” coined by French philosopher Destutt de Tracy (1754-1836) from idéo- “of ideas,” from Greek idea (see idea) + -logie(see -logy). With connective -o- because the elements are Greek and the Greek combining vowel is -o-for nouns of all declensions. Destutt published his Eléments d’idéologie 1801-1815.The term ideology did not become widely employed in the nineteenth century, however, and I have not found that Emerson ever used it. It was only after the appearance of Karl Marx’s long unpublished The German Ideology and Karl Mannheim’s Ideology and Utopia in the period between the world wars of the twentieth century that the term became an omnipresent one. [Lewis P. Simpson, “Mind and the American Civil War,” 1989. Meaning “systematic set of ideas, doctrines through which the world is interpreted” was in use in English by 1907, earliest in socialist and communist writing, with reference to class; from 1918 it came to be used of socialism and communism themselves (along with fascism) and later more broadly still. Ideology … is usually taken to mean, a prescriptive doctrine that is not supported by rational argument. [D.D. Raphael, “Problems of Political Philosophy,” 1970]
or maybe idea for the ideology becoming is the risk we continuously must take, are afraid of and reject. That is the new ideas that are somehow dangerous and radical to somebody, their status, interests and authority. Risk taking, going against the establishment, the machine are the first steps which radical thinkers and makers must be ready to take and thinking outside the restraint/system/box that is a cage, inescapable and blind: freedom happens via thinking without constraints but why the new freedom must be made into a new cage which oftentimes seems to happen? How to solve the question of freedom as humans and how much freedom is good for us? How much restraint must there be to limit us, to make us cross the limits made and find something new? To allow freedom which nature represents and be free in thinking, in making and being is the number one issue, what does freedom mean and how much freedom is reasonable to have?
Is ideology just a useful tool for propaganda and full of traps, a religion we need to have to look forward safely, in safety? What is the belief, in what, we need to live by rationally as individuals and as communities? Ideology is to replace belief systems which it eventually itself is, our reason is flawed continuously. We must free ourselves from something old to renew and the restraint of reason? Old that has been based on irrational grounds, unscientific explanations, imagination, superstitions, gossip, biases, gut feelings, intuition, folklore, tales, history, tradition, gender roles and therefore such nonsense have had to be abandoned, which is ultimately the mission destined to fail.
Ideologies and history of the oppressed, lost and misguided people, go hand in hand. Those who are oppressed have had to find logical ways to solving their hopeless situation and there is power in effort of finding the right path, isn’t that how it goes? We are still learning about our irrational and emotional side as humans and importance of it in making societies and finding humanity instead of being machines. We do not live well as soldiers of one truth and missionaries of one ideology, but that is what most people do. Since there are many sides to things, more than we can comprehend, education is needed. There is an idea which thrives to win, we work to succeed as we like to compete and we must. Society in the end is demanding you to, there are people who demand results from you and you are a failure when these expectations are not fulfilled. How do you fail for you? What is a result worth having and for whom? There is idea of taking over in mind when getting involved with ideology of some kind, framing, leaving, abandoning, fanatics and the most violent ones taking over. It requires concentration, focus, dedication, and depth to do wisely, knowing oneself. Finding truth should be a way to avoid hatred and bitterness, but often they, truth-seekers end up doing quite the opposite, exercising something of their very own, a possession which is an idea of the good. Ideology working like walls around one’s head, forcing to see only straight ahead and quite close by. Ideology works fundamentally as means of finding path in a thick forest. It is a guide, map, compass and a way, danger of brainwash lurking. Bear a warning, bear a lot of warnings. Ideology is talk, a performance, written and spoken, overheard, continuation, emotion, passion and attempt to understand those feelings and ideas that one has rationally. Strangely ideological seeking generally wants to abandon emotion yet ideology lives from intense passions that are more or less irrational. Enthusiasm conquering hardship. How to act intellectually for one’s benefit and is what is good for you good for someone else? How to even think we can calculate what happens to us and should happen to anybody else? It requires blind belief in human abilities to manipulate all components of making which many
ideologies wish to accomplish, manipulation of a mass of people. Life is for everybody to decide and know what to do, how to do that and who are masters deciding. That is the question of what one can do to oneself and with oneself. Not to let anyone decide for you is an ideal, so how does this match the idea of mass today: it is a mass of individuals we have? We live to survive in mutual dependency. Continuously in this moment paying attention to something you hear on TV, at school, in a song, see in the news. To be inspired, moulded or defeated by ideas, facts, disasters, feelings, realities, pieces to put together and make something out of them, inspiration as a life changing force and chain reaction. To let ideas lead, thinking dangers and power of ideas. Do we need protection from ideas? When does an idea become one’s own? If ideas of others are planted in one’s head since childhood, when does person’s self begin, when does the questioning start or knowing it is wrong to question and confront, when we begin to self-censor and allow us be directed by an authority? Learning to speak and communicate in more complex than we give it credit for, learning of manners happens fast, learning when punished happens pretty quickly. Human development to adulthood is a very slow process in comparison to other mammals. It is development of the intellect throughout one’s life. We resisting the moment when I begins, (baby resists crying as reflex of scare, cries from the very moment of his/her birth), scared of not knowing and doing only what body tells to do in that strange moment coming out of a warm place without no other choice. A moment when fetus begins to sense and make thoughts of any kind is time we do not know much about, but it is there, a person, someone. Bright light and hands welcoming and pulling gently leading the way out of womb, new life colliding in to the existing and to all those hands wearing gloves.
11.1 Does ideology match the idea?
Ideologies have crashed into each other as we like to rule and know better, disagree, that is what we do, to do what we do with ideologies, to make distinction, build and notice gaps in between is to know what is there and why, to be exact is to know what we do in our difference, in our need to set boundaries is to be safe, which of course is needed. We crash into people who limit us, who have crashed into each other with fanaticism, disbelief, knowing or not knowing the truth. Them and us running without able to believe anything else than what is right in mind of his/hers, in reality of a person grown into a culture that is given. It is my picturing of ideologies at work, which part of blinding and binding is interesting. Speculating and analyzing results of ideologies known, is there anything other than wanting to ‘intellectualize’ behaviour and the need for leading, being led? Any ideology declares change of things, to change the present state of thinking and living into anew. It is said that to grow up into civilized modern society is the largest ruling ideology there is, which we take self-evident, we grow into it, because we do not
have any other choice. Do we even notice and what do we choose eventually? Society we have offers choices within the frames of welfare and politics, freedom of speech and expression to avoid hurt and provide well-being, giving tools to deal with life, hurt or hiding hurt. We are not supposed to express our hurt feelings in public and we must feel shame is still something to look into. How well can we objectively analyze our doings and know what is wrong? How well can I see myself and how do I see myself? How much of me I see and what I do wrong or right, does it depend on how others see what is right and wrong and what there is in me? Interaction between me and them, image of me, image of them is a constant game played, to be alert about. If time and place are borders and lines to cross, how do I place myself in all this, since I do not live in a vacuum and I should be able to make progress. I live in plenty, in multitude of information and choices. Time is quantified, partitioned in order to get things done, to make progress or make one think one is going somewhere. We pursue to become efficient and good at work, in personal life. We need to measure time to do work productively. Create a day of work, time at work used tells of our meaning and purpose and to forget work in leisure time, gather energy for the next day.
Power of a person is being used to benefit and make a sellable object. People working get paid a certain amount for a specific work of their choosing. Someone estimates the value of time used and force invested, profit collected, skill put in use. Value of force and effort given in a certain time frames a life, a person. To change labour into objects and objects into wealth makes a system. Labour being one object in this process, labourer the other. It is calculation of amount and value, value of people and work is needed and also possibly removed when necessary. People have learned to bargain and claim their rights as workers or was it a granted permission to do that, that there isn’t fear to claim better pay? If in terms of work there aren’t enough sufficient labourers, what happens to work? Labourers can strike if they are not happy for what they are paid and production stops or moves elsewhere, this can happen for the employers too and they do move away or robotise production if necessary. What happens to work now is an acute question as there is a flood of cheap workers, robotics has advanced significantly, work as physical effort changes rapidly, does work as an idea change and how capable are we to change and keep up in this speed? Money earned gets consumed into basic necessities which we get more and more. Nothing is for free in capitalist society where time and place are an important issue.
Struggles of the working class have been the most powerful acts moulding societies at large. As the crowd and folk refuse or can’t work, consume or move, mass of people can change the whole society. First strikes in the west during heavy industrialization era in the 1800s were not nonviolent. Workers were attacked by state; employers and the owning upper class took violent measures against strikers without hesitation. In India first ever industrial strike took place in March in 1862. [7.] “The general strike action only became a feature of the political landscape with the onset of the Industrial Revolution. For the first time in history, large numbers of people were members of the industrial working class; they lived in cities and exchanged their labor for payment. By the 1830s, when the Chartist movement was at its’ peak, a true and widespread ‘workers consciousness’ was beginning to
awaken in England.” [8.] People who have fought for working people have been given bad name, those who are against maximum profiting and exploitation of workers: socialists, communists, union men and women, feminists, all of those have been persecuted, shamed and diminished in the name of the ruling class, profit and winnings. Impact of struggles of the working class have been massive to this day, and how much are our struggles similar to those fought or different from those going on today. Paycheck, length of the working day, working conditions, safety issues, holidays, paternity and maternity leaves, kindergartens, schooling for children of working class families, inexpensive and decent housing, democratic institutions, inexpensive healthcare, equal rights for everyone to live a good life, possibilities to study and work and moreover abolishment of child labour. Welfare that offers chances for happy and safe lives, which many immigrants today go after, is still at risk. Those who cannot take care of themselves are taken care of is the hope. It is a long list of benefits that must be taken into consideration to make a sustainable and equal welfare state. Process and progress of labour movements is still going on. Maybe we act upon when it is absolutely necessary and there is no other alternative. Asia is by population the biggest area of immediate need for labour to improve working conditions and terms of work.
11.2 Computers are easy and fun
How to phrase ideology we Westerners live now by or do we have many? Consumerism, capitalism, Christianity, democracy, neoliberalism, conservatism, environmentalism, globalism, feminism, libertarianism there are many things that make our information-filled world and many ideals and interests that confront each other. As much as economy-driven society seems corrupt and fascist in its need to purify, unify or exploit we still have multiple voices and history is good to bear in mind in terms of how those who are abused can make a change at large, but also personally.
There are reasons to do things, sense, senselessness, uselessness, uses and acts of doing something because of doing, because we feel compelled. Who makes us feel compelled but ourselves amd our condition. If there is nothing to do, who directs and gives instructions to follow, ideas to realize but yourself. There would be nothing to do if we did not invent it and find the need to get things done. Modern people have created a world of errands to keep busy or is it because there are more of us all the time, we have more to do and practice. We have more bureaucracy, institutions, tasks, complexity, piles and messes. Our equipment is marketed for us to keep us stay informed, keep track of our time, at our chores, tasks and what is there. This is what you do with your time and keep your day packed up. This is what we offer you, a world of things and it is easy.
It is made fun to possess a machine that is online, on the net, touchable, available, cool, coolness is the main thing, perkiness, stuff is mechanized in order for us to do cheap tricks. Circus tricks? The most fun part is that models change constantly and equipment evolves faster than most customers can keep up. Strategy of constant growth is to produce in nonstop flow. Competition is heavy. How to keep up and why? And why do these gadgets get so much attention in the media? Phones, computers, TVs, robots. They are fun and expensive, they invade our world and we let them entertain us. Their market and financial value are immense. Market value, what does is mean exactly? How much a company is worth, how much can it produce value, newness and make profit? Electronics industry has a large coverage on the economy at least when looked at the news. News on economy are statistics, scales, curves, plots, diagrams, photos and lists, percentages to keep our attention on wanting, holding and panicking. A new phone keeps us connected and discarding, hanging and fiddling. New electronics look like candy in bright colors, constantly changing application keep coming up to fill a void, making it easier to choose what to buy at grocery store. [1.] Stephen Elop: Analysts, meanwhile, do not think the new Lumia 1020 will set the world on fire. “Despite the quality of the device, I have some serious doubts about whether it will change Nokia’s fortunes, and it risks becoming a niche product,” says IDC’s Francisco Jeronimo. And Ian Fogg at IHS Screen Digest suggested the 1020’s camera makes it a “halo product“, something to light up the brand. Snapchat compatible app called Swap chat; and as for Instagram, he says, the specialist photo app Hipstamatic now comes in a Windows Phone version. Doubt whether it is going to do it or not. New device, newly born and soon too old. Welcomed with hesitation to the market. Exhausting platform, making fresh sound old, wornout, we are already bored with it. Smell something burning? Because there is a burning pile of trash there already behind the beautiful picture. Why so gloomy. Perk up. Depressive statistics of the state of world: pollutions, contamination, waste, junk, abuse of minerals, abuse of land and labour, where does it all come from? This picture and its behind. This at hand, how did it get here. Who took the picture? Why is he standing there? Corporal Santa Claus guru giving a speech of hope four times a year, quarterly giving announcements so that we know what to be excited about. The need, what do we need and to do what.
To set the world on fire. World that already is burning. World existing in flames, in heat, burn, destruction, process, warmth of the sun. What is a burning world a metaphor for than destruction? We burn energy to
keep our daily routines working, smoke and gases burn in our lungs, oxygen in bonfires. Energy which we burn running, thinking and moving, emotions expressed according to temperatures, evilness in fire or cold, love and hate, hell, the rush of blood to the head.
Energy is different things to different people, different contexts, situations, excitement, fever, lust, conflict, war, a need, something to eat. To burn is to change form of material, molecule structure, metamorphoses of materia. What does it mean when a CEO of a multinational corporation talks about the burning world, hints to it, or just to say it won’t do that when introducing a new phone model? One hint is that revolution is a fancy, sellable, fashionable and luring term, the world is on fire is exciting for the middle class? Or was it to tell it might get people excited in buying? Could it be rockish, punkish and popish when CEO wearing sneakers talks about setting the world on fire? Don’t go all the way rock and punk, you will destroy you sellable image. It would be the next new thing in presenting new gadgets to have pyrotechnics on stage or utter pure nonsense flirting with the journalists, like go fuck yourselves. Telling the consumers this is the it thing, the thing you need 41 mega pixel camera phone with a boom.
Expression I am trying to understand is and was said by Stephen Elop the Chief Executive of Nokia as he was using catchy vocabulary as the top salesman of Nokia. It is always an occasion when a phone manufacturing company presents, even many times a year, new models, itself over and over, and its plans by which Nokia going to keep its place as one of the leading manufacturers of cell phones. Planning to rule the market, planning to rule the world. In that sense it really is a burning world. Analysts don’t believe, but Stephen does, or what, maybe not, maybe I’m just calculating and being cynical, yes me. Maybe nobody believes in the ever continuing growth, so what are they doing? That’s probably it, the illusion making and believing. Maybe I understood wrong. It still is a survival game. Is a CEO of Nokia realistic in selling continuously changing apparatuses? Changing for what? For better? Is that a new invention, innovative constructing of the world, progress of machinery, progress of man, globalism at best? Is it necessary? Doesn’t the enormousness of the market tell that the new phones are desired, constant newness is desired badly? The talk of the CEO is desired and waited as an event, as a show. It is a carnivalesque happening and especially working as photos in newspapers. Every detail is important. Finland is still asking when will the new Nokia appear. How dependent Finland’s economy still is on Nokia? Problem of being dependent on big corporations who do not own as a strategy anything to anybody, but only to itself and its stockholders, is substantial. In terms of wealth and how to get it, to be dependent on entities that themselves function only to fulfil selfish needs, meaning keep the company growing and winning more money, is megalomania. It is very suspicious to lean on corporative money as savior or believe companies to be magnets of wealth and fortune. On one hand they are and the other they destroy us. In a way they are the magnets, but there is more to success than finance and possessions. The way how we follow how multinational corporations evolve and keep nations’ economies thriving is manic and panicking,
if that is what they do hypnotise us, we one-sidedly are staring at what the chief executive said exactly, what did he mean and what does it mean for us. To set the world on fire by Nokia’s new phone sounds like a huge exaggeration (that is not what he meant) and somewhat a commercial burst. How trustworthy are his words? Why would he be trustworthy? Who listens to him in the end. Who believes what he says in presenting equipments and applications for us that do more? For those who like to play with electronic devises, consume them, to afford them, it is a fun spectacle. New surprises or no surprices and thrills for a moment. That is what these items mostly are, to people who do not necessarily need new artillery, but enjoy consuming and the show-off. The electronic toys for adults and kids. In some sense it is a continuous war. War of who invents the next best thing to sell. Our multibillion toy reality industry has a strange way of drawing a thick line between the poor and the rich, between worlds defined by numbers and possession, garbage and value. It is the material good that the rich can have fairly easily, which the poor bastards produce in sweatshops over and over again. It is also curious the difference between the image corporations like Nokia create for themselves and the reality within and at the production lines and after the lines.
To look at Elop’s speech of a phone with monstrous camera with 41 megapixels, which is at the moment more than rivals have to offer, is it what buyers want, mega-mega? Guessing what buyers want. What is with the obsession for bigger, owning and producing megalomania? Is it something Western? What is the cult of owning, growing, expanding other than a capitalist plot? It is a jealous play of looks, of gazes and very human, of oh look what I have got. Showoff of power, ability, quantity and wealth, ability of putting on a show, but still never enough, an unstoppable production line. There are similarities to building world’s largest buildings, conquering worlds, countries, seducing women, protecting one’s right to exploit and abuse with corporal expanding, lookalike innovation, which a phone with 41-pixel camera is. Competitive society is rewarding those who are the greediest for success, success and talent is defined by tools one has. Measurements for success at largeness, interviews, visibility, figures and counted as how much. Everybody is nowadays a good photographer. Speeding in search for novelty is dictated by corporal quarterly financial functions followed closely and who is a billionaire. As fashion circulates from winter, spring, summer and to fall collections, collections are tightly followed by the press and us. What to wear, where and with what, what and whom to look like. Such accessories as phones go nicely along with the burning picture of the burning world, burning human.
Visibility, appearance, living in visual world with signals coming at us, we must be seen. We giving ourselves to be looked at, we want to be looked at, need to be looked at and appreciated, estimated, evaluated both ways, to be
looked at is to live, have a life and to look good. Could it be said we are selling ourselves to be accepted? What are we supposed to look like? Supposed to look for? Or maybe the question should be how ‘we’ become to see the way we do, how thorough the influence of our environment is and of people to what we become to be and think. As it is we who do not live in a bubble, we absorb effects, influences, reactions, actions knowingly and unknowingly. We collect things and thoughts we like to own, resemble to, to imitate, to follow, and to belong to and on and on. How much do we follow unconsciously for clues to find acceptance, to find our way, do we find ourselves and others or just junk? How much am I me in this all? What is me, myself, my mind and my consciousness as we think we are individuals by consuming, the way we consume and what we like?
To look like someone, like a terrorist, businessman, artist, poet, schoolgirl, teacher, politician, Instagrammer etc. people have codes from which we recognize their and our tribe, group, social status, codes by which we understand the context in which the person maybe lives in, or more likely we assume these codes of others by how they dress as we like to place labels, boxes and categorize to make it easy for us to understand how to behave, what that other may be thinking and where do we stand. Influence is a key word nowadays. We like to assume situations and thoughts of that other, someone and of course we must up to a point. What else can we do than psychologize and analyze to form a strategy.
Interesting question today 18.7.2013 popped out on twitter: How does a terrorist look like?
One is a product of a culture soaked with imagery of wars in movies and in real life, news and in other media with heavily stereotyped press visuals in a stream of those who oppose each other. As ridiculous as it is, picture of a terrorist in my mind first is an Arab (male) with a scarf with heavy guns. There are many clear images of terrorists in the news flow of those who are blamed to be terrorists, to oppose a strong clean-looking notion of a worn out freedom fighter is the common situation. Freedom fighters as terrorists probably would call themselves and why not. Curious how labels are stamped, they stick to become a fixed truth. What comes to those giving the titles and the reasons why label anyone is politics. Since many crimes of humanity are committed by people wearing suits, labels of terrorists stay forever without much changing telling a story about our media culture, of us and the extent of manipulation. Media continues to push the same imagery over and over again, anything that has a scandal value is thought to be sellable and it is. So, it is not only media which likes the repetition of the same old same old, it is us. What comes to men wearing suits at conferences and the meetings called G with number attached to, they don’t eat the dust. They don’t show at the crime scene, they don’t carry guns. They don’t even get charged with crimes against Humanity, because war is a justified act and a sellable product, war makes profit.
It is not difficult to point to direction of those smooth guys and place the blame on clean-looking, polite and correctly behaving politicians with connections on a red-carpet waving (not carrying guns, but image of a gun is upon them, built-in their moves). The act of correctness has immense impact. A trained performance on media stage, an imitation of certain kind of hygienic clean perfection. Forming perfect sentences, speaking in tone, well-chosen, friendly, amusing, joking and funny. Funniness appeals (is that why they joke on set or is it to hide something, saying don’t hate me, I’m a good guy), verbal seduction and smelling good. Interesting is the connection between amiable smell and words said. It is part of the politeness game to create light atmosphere. Our traditions of behaving, media make-believe and biases are in an important role when focusing on and using stereotypes to make an impact. Stereotypes that got made, how they live and create our world. That is what stereotypes do strongly and strangely; create what we see, want to see and hear, and we creating stereotypes again in return, giving back the received filth ignoring truth. Prejudices being translations and rendition of the unchanged melody.
10.3 Not hiding my sentiments.
“I ride the wave that’s what I do” words of a trader sitting in front of computer screens in documentary called Floored directed by James Allen Smith (2009) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=–H8SY334Zw. Film focusing on stock trader’s profession in Chicago. How people working in the ‘pit’ see their work, which is about making a lot of money aggressively and in a possessed way loving it. If demons are not in there, I’ll be damned. It is not just a cattle pit the place of gambling. It is a mental state of making wealth and anything else is secondary. Moneymaking is what traders concentrate on doing with their body and mind focused on timing, patterns and the right hit. Which is their main goal, reason for working, big bucks, showoff and to perform. Most say they do it every day as a way of life. Macho image is part of the way of living as is smoking cigars and spending money like candy. It surely is a question of personality and values. It is a highly masculine field and brutality of the business is clear. Traders do not seem to be sorry about it at all. It is part of the trade to take big risks and win or get hurt and lose everything. Traders are gamblers and enjoy the risks. They enjoy the game. It is a boy’s dream come true with I fucked with the playmate of the month. In the film it is not mentioned what it is traders are trading. It does not play a role of in their thinking what businesses do as long as they are winning. It is just money. We are the money, losses are on all of us. The thought is to get money in a very egoistic manner of taking. Evaluating the right time and amount of stock to sell reading other traders’ faces and minds. Part of the film is to show homes and possessions of traders. How their houses resemble their ideology and way of life. One of the guys travels and
hunts wildlife. Trading business and stuffed animals look the same; Oh look, I shot a Rhino and got photographed in front of its dead body with a gun in my hand and cigarette in my mouth. Human condition can be ugly on high testosterone.
Hardcore sport at work and in leisure time. Enjoyment, thrill, ecstasy and adrenaline as fuel and flow to be and live in. I made much money, in repeat. I can do this and get that. Things are there to be taken. Film Floored ends at the time of 2008 crash. It is a time of the beginning of recession or should it be said the revealing of the financial decline, it breaking out and up. At the end of the film Mr. George W. Bush is giving a concerned and empathetic speech about stock market decline. He is with us, with our worries at the time of this “extraordinary state of economy“. “Some have failed, credit markets have frozen. We are at the brink of serious financial crisis.” Movements around the globe have been active and ready to fight against greed. In places financial depression has shown catastrophic consequences leaving people homeless, unemployed and without income. Devastating has been the scope of the disaster as the gambler mentality still reigns the same that caused the recession. Dichotomy between stock traders, their attitude towards making money, impact they make with their work globally and living is shocking. Shock is that there is no shock in the end. It is like the inevitable misery of millions of losers and joy of few mighty winners. It is the very logic when you look at the thinking patterns closely. It has been known how big money moves and why economy is ruled by banks, investment and insurance houses. There has not been enough democratic regulation of the money flow and the finance world tends to be a game, just as traders in the film are telling. Finance is a competitive sport where winning is the only thing that matters. Rules, taxes and laws are there to be avoided. Finance world is a world of its own sucking the most out of the living and leaving the rest to rot, game effecting everybody with its ups and downs. It does not sympathize or regret, it doesn’t matter how many times you save the banks, they won’t save you. It takes care of its own profit and goes hiding in towers. The measures are very clear, only odd thing is that the so-called democratic countries and politicians willingly support this survival of the most ruthless ideology. Media functioning as the megaphone telling loudly how things are and how afraid we should be. [2.]
Idea of good and bad is known, sensible is the way to choose between. Constant fighting giving meaning for us to structure the world and make it may be in a simpler manner, maybe better. Those two sides making us and making us create.
People are scared to death. People are made scared. Illusions of what is good and what is not are made every day by people who think they know better. Kindness is very scarce. We are made to believe that to be kind is to be weak. There is a serious misunderstanding in what is strength, hate, what is good and how to treat other human beings. For me it feels like a world of constant misunderstandings without apologies, regrets, learning nor spiritual and mental growth. People living in believing they are good, in good, doing good, they are deserving, they do good-by doing good which is often the material good. Good people are doing for themselves. Their lives are for themselves., who else. Selfishness is part of our survival instinct. I go first. I think for all creatures it is so. It can be called the will to survive and flourish. The human in us, the nature, survival, the bad and the good. We are in an ongoing state of scare of not finding enough good for us, possessions bringing the feeling of safety, success and
bravery. Yet we are very much afraid to put ourselves at jeopardy for public good. Losing time, energy and effort for the sake of someone else is demanding. It is a curious and banal behavioural pattern of being secure and winning all the time, compulsive and manic. Knowing what is right and good, can we beat the nature, do we have to beat it in every way possible or only the part that is us in our cells and synapses and all that body and material that we are? Still we compare the good to the natural. Can we beat this conflict in order to be modern? Could we eat less and be more kind to the nature and ourselves in doing so? Could we not grow exponentially in material but grow from the inside out as people or is that naive? Could we be less individual and more communal? What is our human nature? In the light of economics it looks grim. Does human nature create us or does nature create our nature daily? How much are we actually able to change as beings? Is a mass altering of people’s behaviour possible as is the ongoing mass murder, hypnosis and lunacy? Mass change of human spirit and mind for the good to find a good life, peaceful and harmonious in a slow way as many quotes online kindly remind us. Changing the goals, aspirations, halt our eagerness to conquer and beat others down. It is a beginning of some sort all the time. An end is a beginning, ending is a change.
Ideas of the weak and strong put people in different positions, individual characterizing and differences between genders, ethnicities are used to rule and diminish. It is ever so strange, because there is no stop to it. The evidence and necessity to manifest the difference, strength and weakness and how they are defined. We know boundaries exist, we make them. It is a reason for the constant fights and discrimination. Based on traditions, superstitions, habits, and imagining inner qualities by looking at the outer qualities. What qualifies? If a woman wants to pose strong (I call it posing) she has to be like a man, speak manly words, use gestures, choose topics, tones of voice. Examining the other instead of oneself is the main issue. Examining happens by the eye. When I read magazines for women it is all about being under a magnifying glass and how to impress, how to be, and growth is what, finding true happiness via norms still? People do not know how to be. They need instructions. Magazines are offering survival instructions for women, how-to-kits, measuring, give yourself time, spoil yourself, calculative manipulation of self-image based on torture and self loath. Quasi well-being for the wealthy, it can be bought, of course, everything is for sale. Articles are ads, radiant examples of decay and cheating. You deserve it. It is the fear of death that is targeting us to consume, fear of not living, fear of being left out, misplaced, abandoned, fear of sickness and loneliness. What defines happiness which is presumably our goal to be happy, carefree and enthusiastic, is it the emotional side to which we are stuck? Our emotions guiding us doesn’t sound rational. It is not reasonable to argue and cause disturbance, unhappiness. Happy people do not need to find anything since they are
in a perfect state. Happiness is the state when one is most eager to go searching for more? Is it an emotional moment to be fulfilled with little, less can be more than most of us understand? Don’t stuff happiness with too much cream. To learn to understand momentary body of happiness is essential in finding happiness. But what is little then, what is enough, adequate, sufficient? How much of happiness is given and which part we create ourselves? [3.][4.][5.] What is being said and the ways to say are essential. Which topics stay hidden and which lay bare in making collective empowering atmosphere or not. Collective togetherness, native and foreign making things happen for all of us. Bear in mind who are you talking to, who to address and who have power to elect, give advice, lead, direct, who takes/ is given place in front. The emphasis is on beauty, complexity, simplicity, easiness, effortlessness, understandable seriousness, strength, stresslessness, joy and a mass of individuals. A mass, thousands of individuals stopping and beginning kindness, a new religion please now. Kindness towards oneself and others. We live in a sadist world that eats us and itself by wanting people to look like clones in the pictures, pose, eat the same food, wear the same clothing as the rich, do the same things as them in pictures, live like the rich. It could be called trying to find stability by moulding the crowd with mass media, making the mass believe what is good for them, what is good to think, have, be like and know. Mass hysteria, mass manipulation, mass delusion, mass destruction is happening without you being able to help it, so live it.
Modern times finding sickness in the other, there must be someone to blame. That is not modern, that is human finding his ego. Whether it is witchcraft, feminism or socialism, it is about those others who dare to object and they make bad things happen. And what is health anyway and how to avoid feeling ill, because I feel like throwing up. What is the ultimate bad we must avoid? Should they, bad, be isolated, the guilty. Make them wear orange, humiliate them. Some unfit people who do not know how to live in this civilized world. What is healthy in a diseased society? Health industry booms, it flourishes, avoid fat, eat that. We want to feel good all the time. Spoil ourselves. Are we finding the other by placing the blame, what is the other than low? There is constant suspicion against anything different. Is that fear I smell. Other is different from oneself. To like someone, we tend to look for similarities, compare. Forever ongoing problem of how to understand what the other conscious being is feeling and thinking or even be interested in those things someone has. The manners of communication of trying to be understood, to make myself clear, to claim my place as a thinking and worthy individual, capable
member of society, it is to make oneself known, explain myself, express myself, say and be seen. Without that ability is there an I? Can I be in a state of unable to express and still be a worthy being? In that case I am at the mercy of others who do not have mercy for those who are thought to be weak? Ability and possibility of expressing my thoughts is vital in terms of growth, in terms of becoming part of but aware. To reflect myself and get responses, get rejection or approval. I need both. I need feedback so I would not feel that I am living in a vacuum among zombies ready to be eaten. Anything, a response, still it can be a desperate attempt if no one is interested.
Weakness. How is it defined nowadays? I am curious because my gender is again and again declared weak. Well, I do feel weak under all this guilt. Physically and bound to inventing a plan continuously, inventing new ways of being and doing. To be an alien in one’s own country sounds like someone who has committed a crime. Alienation is seen as solitary existence, someone who cannot get in touch with the rest of the world in an easy way. Does not want or is not able to? Then one can think is alienation the real problem here, in this picture? Is it just a symptom the problem of the alienated? Should they be told to perk up? That is what placing the blame does cause loss of focus. To someone who is left outside to survive for whatever reason blame is probably not the right thing. And why are they alienated? By choice of their own or others? Bullying, depression, alienation, loneliness go hand in hand. This society is in big trouble with mental health issues pretty soon if not already. Those who are bullied are not the only ones having mental health issues. Very often the bully has more severe symptoms which stay untreated. Mental health is just as important to maintain as physical health, maybe even more important. It would be about a time for the stigma around mental health illnesses to fade. What has this got to do with class, gender or work in general? With my experience of jobs in Finland a lot. For example, it is common to be bullied at work, one can say bullying was a joke, one should understand humour, even cruel. One must also understand not to tell your superiors about bullying. It is common to let believe that personnel cope such problems on their own, since it is not kindergarten. Funnily many people behave like they were mentally very young so yes, work can be like kindergarten. Examples are many, they all sound familiar and repetitious. It has led me wondering what happens at work. People get alienated, alienate each other, make suicides, get depressed and it is happening in a massive force. According to WHO report on worldwide depression 2012 350 million people have been ill with depression. Call that an epidemic. How odd.
Why is it a taboo? WHO statistics also tell that one Million people commit suicide every year. [6.] To be alienated is of course a strange state of things, maybe coincidence, maybe unavoidable, sad and extreme. What does it mean to a person? Why there is alienation and is it more common than ever? Is the society emphasizing too much on individual success and coping heroically on your own? The whole phenomenon of alienation is linked to concept of normal, normal behavior, mass of the similar us, how things should look like and what we are supposed to be and do with our lives. Person who is alienated in society’s eyes may not feel alienation as a bad thing or harmful. Alienation can be a refuge. Safe haven for a misfit. Some of it could be called What kills enthusiasm at work and Why can’t everybody get what they want for Christ’s sake. For how many people work is a compulsory burden, everyday chore with no enjoyment of doing? Remembering tired looking people in the morning in a bus five o’clock, same faces every morning. Are we doing it for the money? Is money good? And if it is not then why do it? We have to eat and live. What if there is no money for your work and you love your work despite does it pay. Few may value what you do and future is always an open book, canyon, abyss, jail of whatever, ecstasy, heaven, thrill or freedom to do whatever you like and call it what you want. What is class anymore other than a heritage and a memory and what does alienation got to do with this? Class is an epoch description in movies and stories. How things have been done, how things will be done by set standards. It is about doing and making and having position. Making money, making a living. Expenses rising continuously, paychecks are not keeping up in the progress. Middle class growing close to the working class or class identity will eventually fade altogether. Almost anyone who is lucky enough to have a job is working-class nowadays. How does that notion change our perspectives on society and identity? It begins to be too respected to have a job at all, despite what it is. The unemployed, immigrants, the poor become more or less ‘alienated’, unfortunate people who do not find their place, difficulty of finding
meaningful things to do without money is a problem. We like to see alienation as a personal and social problem. It has become a curse, shame and person’s own fault like living with your mother. Scapegoats to any economic turmoil there might be, burdens to society are those who do not match the given methods of play and survival. It is them who suffer the most of the scams that happen in financial world and rules of making it. There is a certain apathy and indifference there socially, lack of interest from which alienation springs out. It is a very strange phrase to hear from a fifteen-year-old youngster who does not want to do anything, go anywhere. Alienation means one does not have a job, intern job, school to go to, friends to be with, hobby to activate or home etc. It is a complicated and complete passive state a living person can have, helplessness. It can sound the spoiled ones are not able to activate themselves. It is something they have not learned to do, make it. They are not able to use capacity of theirs, some say. One side to the picture what comes to change and alienation. Things we cannot change seems to be ourselves, to accept that fact is hard. What is life but pure chance and random events, change nailed into it all over. How to make our burden lighter in this picture is the basic question. How to become less selfish, less self-absorbed and more open to the world? If you can lighten the burden of yours why not lighten somebody else’s burden as well.
Alienation comes in different forms and there are all kinds of ways to see it. For one, one is master of his own life, what happens to him, he earned his situation. Which is a very cruel way to see life as pure competition and luck. Since we have different kinds of ways to manage and do things, learn methods, it is rather insensitive to place blame on those less fortunate and those who have made bad choices, or there has been someone else who has made bad choices for them. Some choose to gamble (but isn’t that what people have to do since we do not know the right answers, what future holds. We have to take our chances?), some are screwed and conned, robbed and killed. How to gamble in life? Gambling is a sport says dictionary. Risky game, life’s essence, risks and how well we are able to learn to either avoid, predict and adjust our lives to risks. Always at risk and fearing for life is what welfare state is to help with, still to find life enjoyable we love to play games. Some place stakes higher. Wanna bet? Vocabulary used associates with money directly and someone’s life can end in a bullet. Is life money like time is, since it can be gambled or does life produce monetary possessions, is that what life does? What is life? Someone’s life is a possession of that person. It varies in different countries and by gender how person’s life is weight. Winning in this random game gives power and status of the winner. If one can repeat winning over and over one becomes a champion, unbeatable and people ask how did you do it. What is your
secret? How to gamble in life is a silly question, the risk and nature of life itself is a game. To learn how to play and who dictates the rules. As we are playing, we make it all quite confusing, to think meaning of playing and why am I on this particular set and what is my part, who is we. To talk about social change is to talk about kindness towards others, people and animals. How to practice kindness in everyday life? Is there time, are people capable of random acts of kindness, how would such acts be accepted and randomness if that is the nature of help? What do I do mostly is pass by, walk on? I do not stop to talk. Society has constant demand on us, we must demand much of ourselves. It is difficult to avoid feeling of losing when so much is lost. The feeling it brings trying to change things but nothing changes. That is the new normal, a superhero, achiever one must be otherwise you are plain. It is not difficult to guess how such a person got made. Where do we get our delusional image of what life should be, where to place our goals? It is too much to ask to be someone who looks good on TV, yes, I think it is. If that is our normal, I don’t want it. It is true we live in a competitive cinematic society. Competition on any level and age, with anything. It is tiring and often futile. To compete at work, at school, in social media, with strange ways of playing. Who makes it to be an interesting person and what kind of person qualifies in that category? I really don’t know anymore. I’m not sure if I give a fuck.
Is there change emerging and what is it? If there is a change it is very slow although we are speeding. What is sickness now? How an illness gets a status of an illness? It has a cure, it is a condition out of ordinary? Homosexuality was considered sickness till the beginning of 80s in Finland. Since the eighties concern and treatment for mental illnesses have been improved fairly well. Attitudes towards sexual minorities are slowly changing as well. It is almost ok to talk openly about psychotherapy one has had and almost ok to be lesbian. How about suicide one’s family member has committed? How emotional illnesses can be measured? They are emotional states in which it is difficult to live, that make you behave strangely, out of the ordinary, see things that do not exist. It is the symptoms you describe to your doctor and what your doctor thinks about them. How long has this been going on? Do you have suicidal thoughts? How would you do it, suicide? Why is there shame on mental illness is obvious, the danger and breaking of
social codes become visible, a disturbance to the normal which statistically seen is normal. How does that change human worth when you get sick? Why is it scary? You lose control of yourself and your life, you become something to hide, you can’t afford to be sick. Illness of mind makes you do unexpected things, behave irrationally and maybe, just maybe be a danger to your environment and yourself. Then in this light there are lunatics going freely around most everywhere.
11.4 Scenes in real life. Atmosphere of suspicion, hurt and ill is a curious gap between people willingly kept alive to make people fall down.
A plastic surgeon has in his office pictures of his clients who had posed in Playboy or in other men’s magazines. He is very proud of his work and was pointing out that he likes it that women want to look beautiful and correct bodily flaws they may have and usually do. Perfection is a difficult idea to approach a body, a person. It is bound to taste, ideals, desires, upbringing and other influences, personality and learnings in life, needs and goals. Other matter connected in finding perfection is to define the flaws. Some bodily features may be justified to correct. Not so sure if correcting a vagina for boyfriend’s thrill would be on my list. Taste has tendency to change and it is going to the unnatural. The more we imitate what others have, the more infantile our desires are, this is my view. To seek acceptance by appearance and imitation what does that tell about people other than of their desperate need for love and be seen. Appearance and creating seemingly a personal style is theatre and a message. This is what I am like, this is what I like. It is also a common subject of talk. Look what she is wearing. To carry my clothes, to carry myself, is to carry a person. How do we carry ourselves is Habitus, bearing. One has to focus on that, concentrate on how do I do when I speak and express like this, I look like this. It is important how you face people, it is also polite to dress to a certain occasion in a certain way. It is manners, courtesy, traditions, impressions and expectations. It has led me thinking how much I am my clothes, my Habitus, visuals I create? My clothes are part of me even though they would not interest me that much as parts of my self- expression. They are part of my daily life to protect me. Some clothes are me and very many are not. I have chosen to wear few comfortable ones. I let others to see me in them. I am viewed wearing them as parts of me. So, it feels justified, a little to be judged by what I am wearing and oh so stupid. My clothes tell a story and they represent me. I should consider it heavily as appearance is the number one issue by which I am viewed and become for others. Should I hide something. Is there a reason for changing my outfit other than it is worn-out, uncomfortable or doesn’t suit the weather? To wear something
hideous, out of fashion and obviously secondhand is a statement and it tells I don’t have much money to spend on clothes or I care on certain issues. What comes to clothing is essential part of consumerism, grouping and pleasing. The younger you are the more important grouping is. Change in terms of growing up is to become to accept who you are, to be self- aware. How consciously do we construct our ego and id or is ego a dictator? Kids know from quite early on what they like, what they want to wear and they compare and reflect. Liking and not liking, are there shades to that? Liking a bit more. With liking there is the sense of good and bad in terms of behavior, which gets moulded by pressure and guidance.
Our minds are under influence and surveillance. We get addicted to interactive social media as well as to sensation hungry instant contents in any media. We are guided, in other words manipulated to follow contents that are asking to be followed. It is one scheme of fitting in the social norms nowadays. Fun is luring. Entertainment is to stay glued to equipment that make chatting about Justin Bieber and BB-house on Twitter possible. Laughter is to connect, laughter at others and make situations easy-going, effortless and simple. It also makes life more livable bringing relaxed and unstressed feelings removing tension. Entertainment is also to change controlling monitoring straitjacket of stress and efficiency, and entertainment creates the straitjacket of effortlessness, dreams and fun.
Conventions can bring feeling of security and stability. They can prevent from seeing other perspectives to finding new ways of doing and thinking. One convention is to fully trust corporations who provide easy entertainment, stream of content for us to consume and reflect to. Entertainment business is an image creator. Images for us to desire to be desired. Entertainment is influencer like no other what comes to body image, placing importance on status, social appreciation, a clear lifestyle moulder. It keeps us with fast changing stream of images and influences, fashions and trends. We absorb everything we get emotionally attached to and it keeps us alert for what is coming next. Change is difficult to measure in this kind of world where almost nothing stays still, but still what is changing exactly? It is almost absurd to try measure what changes, how and when. Change itself is a way to live when you think about it and when you don’t think. That is a sure thing and nature of life. So why puzzle myself with this is to understand the decision to change, need to change, will to change, demand to and where does the individual desire, need, will make a change begin and how. What needs to happen to make a desired social change, a reform, realize itself. I say so because it is partly uncontrollable when social change concerning many people happens. Reasons to be puzzled by
questions about change are because even though it is nothing but self- evident, we are struck by it. Changes can be overwhelming, hard to bear. Tsunami wipes away 250 000 people just like that in couple of minutes. misfortune and death is all over. Is there something else one can do but accept them? Call them punishments from God? It is us that have done something wrong and made God angry. We can try to calm God down by worshipping and living as He has told us to live in holy books, be his image? We can try to explain what happens to us and why. As our lives despite all preparations are at chance, coincidence, random and accidental.
Floored, documentary on Chicago stock exchange, 2009 “electronic trading brings stability, it is a very efficient market place”. 21.8.2013
“Should the west intervene in Syria? Whatever it does, it will do so in the shadow of the war in Iraq. Tony Blair, the prime minister who led the UK into that war, has come out in support of action.” Financial times article by Chris Cook, 27.8.2013
Bad Reputation,The Folly of Going to War for “Credibility”, Foreign Affairs, Jonathan Mercer, 28.8.2013
5.https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/aug/28/death-middle-class-undermine-democracy, The Guardian, The death of the middle class will undermine our democracy, Suzanne Moore, 28.8.2013
6.http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs369/en/, WHO, depression, 29.8.2013 7.http://archive.cpiml.org/liberation/year_2008/april/interview_u_bhatt.html, 15.2.2014 History of labor rights and working class movement in India, “We are striving to reestablish Mumbai’s identity as a fortress of working class movement”